Guidelines for Practical Application of the EUROPE Model to Improve Production Units’ Resource Efficiency

Jan Stenis1, *, William Hogland2
1 LundaHydro AB, Vårlöksvägen 4, SE-387 92 Borgholm, Sweden
2 Dept. of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, SE-391 82 Kalmar, Sweden


Introduction & Objective:

This paper describes the practical usage of the EUROPE (Efficient Use of Resources for Optimal Production Economy) model based on the equality principle to improve the resource efficiency of production units.


The EUROPE model is a tool to monitor, manage and evaluate how the economic, technological and environmental performance of a firm or other production unit changes over time.

Results & Discussion:

A manual for daily use was provided to industrial managers and practical operators in a municipal solid waste firm. The company was able to improve its economic, environmental and technological standards by employing the EUROPE model, which combines relevant aspects of all three standards in a single key performance indicator. The method involves allocating shadow costs to residuals and the technique is demonstrated in the case of a medium-sized Swedish municipal solid waste management firm.


The case study indicates that the manual accompanying the model is useful for companies applying the model to industrial activities and solid waste management schemes.

Keywords: EUROPE model, Practical application, Production units, Manual, Environmental performance, Solid waste.

Abstract Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2018
Volume: 11
Publisher Item Identifier: EA-TOWMJ-2018-5

Article History:

Received Date: 2/8/2018
Revision Received Date: 23/10/2018
Acceptance Date: 28/10/2018
Electronic publication date: 22/11/2018
Collection year: 2018

© 2018 Stenis and Hogland.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Cardellsgatan 3 Lgh 1101, SE-291 31 Kristianstad, Sweden; Tel: +467 68 772 255; E-mail: